It was worn mainly by noblewomen during the Ming dynasty for ceremonies or official occasions. It is also traditional headgear for brides. Fengguan means "phoenix crown", a name that originates from its adornments: phoenixes made of inlaid kingfisher feathersas well as gold dragons, beaded pheasants, pearlsand other gemstones. One of the earliest phoenix crowns that has been excavated belonged to Empress Xiao of the Sui dynasty.
Kingfisher feathers were extremely rare during the Ming Dynasty and were potentially sourced from Cambodia. For example, the phoenix crown of Ming Empress Xiaoduanxian has 6 dragons, 3 phoenixes, 5, pearls, 71 rubies, and 57 sapphires. The weight of the entire crown can range from 2—3 kilograms 4. There are different varieties of phoenix crown. The number of dragons, phoenixes and pheasants, in addition to the presence of certain ornaments was dictated by rank.
Only the crowns of empresses and crown princesses wife of crown prince can have temple ornaments adorned, with the empress's crown having 6 blades of temple ornaments 3 on each side. Noblewomen cannot have temple ornaments on their headdresses. Tang Dynasty phoenix crown worn by Empress Consort Wu. Ming Dynasty phoenix crown worn with diyi.
Ming Dynasty phoenix crown with strings of pearls. Ming Dynasty noblewoman wearing a crown with 9 pheasants and traditional Ming dress. Ming Dynasty noblewoman wearing a crown with 5 pheasants and traditional Ming dress. Ming Dynasty phoenix crown with 6 dragons and 3 phoenixes.
Ming Dynasty phoenix crown with 6 dragons and 3 phoenixes belonging to Empress Xiaoduanxian. Ming Dynasty phoenix crown with 9 dragons and 9 phoenixes. Ming Dynasty phoenix crown with 3 dragons and 2 phoenixes.
Polleras on Parade – Santo Domingo, La Villa de Los Santos & Las Tablas, Panama
Ming Dynasty empress's phoenix crown with 3 dragons and 2 phoenixes. The temple ornaments are laid by the sides. View of the reverse of a Ming Dynasty empress' phoenix crown with 3 dragons and 3 phoenixes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Historical Han Chinese clothing. Fengguan Futou Song official headwear Tang official headwear Qing official headwear. Mandarin square. List of Hanfu. Folk costumes. Afghanistan Pakol Chapan Deel Paranja. Dirndl Lederhosen Poffer Poland Tracht.
Tignon Western wear Bolo tie Chaps. Hidden categories: Harv and Sfn template errors Articles containing Chinese-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November CS1 Chinese-language sources zh. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.The clothes worn by the people of the country, especially their traditional dresses or traditional attire, is defintiely a part of it.
Read on and learn about the traditional dress of different countries around the world and how and when they are worn. A Sari is worn with a blouse and a Sari skirt. The Sari skirt is a full length skirt worn underneath the Sari for the purpose of holding the Sari around the waist.
To wear a Sari, tuck one end of the Sari in the Sari skirt just below your navel. Then, wrap the Sari around the body once till you arrive at the navel again. Here, fold the Sari into 3 or 4 vertical pleats and tuck it into the Sari. Pull what is left around the body and drape it on the chest and shoulder. Saris worn for special occasions and weddings are usually made from silk and have gold embroidery in them whereas the Saris worn everyday are made from cotton or nylon that are more comfortable to wear.
The traditional dress of Thailand is Chut Thai. Its also the national dress of Thailand which is worn on formal occasions by the members of the royal family. A Chut Thai has three parts — a pha nung, a blouse, and a sabai. A pha nung is a strip of cloth thats wrapped around the waist and a sabai is a strip of cloth draped on the chest and shoulder.
A jeweled belt at the waist helps hold the dress in place. As shown in the picture, it is sometimes accessorised with a crown. If you want to try out the Chut Thai, there are shops in Bangkok that rent it out for a photo shoot. I spotted one at Wat Arun and of course had to try it out.
This experience is definitely worth spending Baht on. Considered to emanate from sixteenth century Spanish dress, the Panamanian Pollera is worn during traditional festivals and private celebrations. Mainly made of cotton and wool, the two-piece dress consists of a shirt and long skirt.
It is predominantly white with colourful flower-patterned adornments. Gold jewellery worn around the neck and on the head complements the dress and an array of tembleques non-jewel ornaments completes the headdress. An interesting feature of the Pollera is the set of pom-poms, one in front and the other at the back.
The colour of the shoes always matches that of the pom-poms. The Pollera is very expensive as it is entirely crafted by hand and can take a year or more to complete. Women would commonly own two Polleras during their lifetime, one as a girl before turning 16, the other during adulthood.
Image and content submitted by Chris from TravelHippi. There are many reasons to visit Scotland from the castles to the ceilidhs but best of all…. The tartan used to create your kilt will reflect your clan or family name, however in modern times the majority of kilts are hired not owned and therefore vary in colour and style depending on the occasion. Worn by both men and women — although predominantly men — they can be seen at graduation ceremonies, weddings, Christmas parties and even at football matches if the Scotland team are playing.
Despite the numerous add ons, there is one item traditionally removed when wearing a kilt — underwear.
The women wear a dress of beautiful colors and flowered stamp, black heels and a white handkerchief on the belt. Both suits are mainly used between September 16 and 19 when the country celebrates the Independence Day.
However, still many people in the countryside use this attire every day.The pride of Panamanian women, Traditional headwear Tembleque. Traditional headwear Tembleque is a part of folk dress Pollera — the pride of Panamanian women. The cost of this traditional dress, known since the time of the colonization of America by the conquistadors, today reaches several thousand dollars. Even more expensive is the complete folk dress with jewellery decorations peinetaspearl beads, and a special headwear Tembleques.
Made of gold and pearls, their price can reach up to 15 dollars. Besides, the hair of beauties — decorated with tortoise shell combs with a gold plate complemented with pearl flowers and two dozen of gold pins, one of which resembles a dagger. And one of them — the January parade of pollera where the participants select main beauty.
Her decorations complement another gold jewelry — a crown. Folk headwear Tembleque. In fact, traditional costume of Panamanian women originate in the American colonies of Spain. When the wives of wealthy colonists moved to a new continent, their luxurious outfits from a rather dense textile became uncomfortable in hot and very humid tropical climate of equatorial America.
Then they began to dress the same way as their servants: skirts and blouses made of cotton or linen, and decorated with embroidery and lace.
Pollera Blanca (White Pollera)
Pretty soon la pollera spread among the Creoles and mestizos, and today — considered one of the symbols of Panama. Today, people wear traditional costume on holidays together with the traditional gold jewellery and pearl beads, passed down from generation to generation.
In addition, the Panama women traditionally wear several golden chains and other ornaments as necessary items of La Pollera. In particular, earrings, usually made of gold or coral.
And to complete the outfit, woman wears slippers which match the color of her pollera. Besides, the traditional color of costume of Panamanian women is white. Panama women adorn their head and hair with floral decorations matching with Pollera. The hair — parted into two braids and tightly pulled back behind the ears. Made of wool or cotton, Panamanian folk costume is very colorful.
For decorations they use different materials, from fish scales, silk fabrics, to pearls, etc. Other fine adornments, like beads, sequins, crystals, flowers should match the colors of a costume.
Most of the decorations — embroidered, flowers and regional animals are among the most common designs found in polleras. A single pollera can cost from several hundred to several thousands dollars and take up to a year to create.
The gold and pearl decorations — generally passed down as heirlooms through generations. La pollera, worn on holidays together with the traditional gold jewellery peinetas and pearl beads tembleques.
Called La pollera headwear worn with gold jewellery and pearl beads. Baby girl posing in traditional Panamanian Tembleques and Pollera. Gabriela Rodriguez, wearing traditional Panamanian Tembleques.
The Pollera of Panama
Wearing traditional Panamanian Tembleques and Pollera. Decorated with beadwork combs — a part of traditional headwear of Panamian women Tembleques. Decoration made of pearls, corals, crystals. Hanging accessories made of pearls, corals, and crystals. There is tremendous variety of Pollera in Panama these days but traditionally Pollera is white.
Traditionally decorated with beads, corals, pearls and crystals hat. Decorated with beads, corals, pearls and crystals hat. Beads, corals, pearls and crystals decorate a hat. Gorgeous woman in traditional Pollera of white color. Two women wearing Tembleque.Cheville and Lila R.
Among these factors traditional culture is frequently mentioned as one of the most important. Traditional cultures seem to germinate spontaneously like plants that grow wild in the forest. They appear as if by accident, without plan, direction, or preconceived ends, and are transmitted from one generation to another independent of the surrounding modern civilization. Traditional culture belongs to the common people, that large sector of society that is neither primitive nor wholly integrated into the modern life of the country.
Each region has its own particular characteristics or exclusive traits which differentiate it from others. It is the sum total of these characteristics that go to make up the culture we call folklore and which is frequently mentioned as a basic element in the quality of nationhood.
Naturally these folk manifestations assume a distinct and particular form for each group of people, and these differences of taste and feelings are the determinant signs of nationality.
Folk expressions must be considered among the most essential foundations of a nation. They are as strong and stirring as the national flag, national seal, or national anthem, at the same time older and more deeply rooted in the lives of the people.HEADDRESS TUTORIAL 1 YOU TUBE
Within specific areas of a nation, expressions frequently vary and change without altering the essence of the original; the Spanish jota, for example, originated in Aragon but is danced with different variations throughout all of Spain. In Panama, the tamborito Panama's national dance is found in almost every region of the Republic, but the basic dance changes little from one province to another; we have not studied Bocas del Toro. When an element of folk tradition acquires complete acceptance among a people, reflecting the soul of an entire population, then it must be conceded that this element is an ingredient of national spirit and sentiment.
There are many folk traditions that have been adopted as truly characteristic of Panama's nationality, but among all of these symbols probably no single expression stands higher than the pollera, the women's national dress. Its flowing skirt, abundance of handwork, and ornate jewelry mark the dress as one of the most beautiful costumes in the world, admired and cherished by all Panamanians.
Some have indicated the exact point of origin for the costume, but such exactness is not compatible with folk material since one of the main characteristics of folklore is spontaneous and anonymous origin.
When people become aware of the existence of a folk tradition, a great deal of time has already passed during which the tradition has grown and developed. The pollera had an origin. Along with the other traditional Latin American dresses, the pollera descended from the Spanish dress of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. She wrote, "I sincerely believe the answer is simple; the origin is in Spain, but not from the regional Spanish dress, which contrary to general opinion did not develop its current form until the eighteenth century or later.
The pollera in Panama evolved from the Spanish feminine dress of the seventeenth century, not from the court dress with its grand hoops covered with velvets and embroidered silks embellished with laces, gold, and silver threads - the dress which immediately comes to mind to most people because they have frequently seen the pictures of Velazquez.
In the seventeenth century, as in any other time, contemporary with the beautiful court dresses there was the daily house dress, which in this epoch was generally white with a full skirt of two or three ruffles embroidered or appliqued in floral designs.It is fashioned from a square scarfand is usually made of cotton. Toward the end of the s, the keffiyeh became a fashion accessory in the United States and, during the s, it became very popular among teenagers in Tokyo, Japanwhere it is often worn with camouflage -style clothing.
During his sojourn with the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, Gavin Young noted that the local sayyids —"venerated men accepted [ Many Palestinian keffiyehs are a mix of cotton and wool, which facilitates quick drying and, when desired, keeping the wearer's head warm.
The keffiyeh is usually folded in half into a triangle and the fold worn across the forehead. Some wearers wrap the keffiyeh into a turbanwhile others wear it loosely draped around the back and shoulders. A taqiyah is sometimes worn underneath the keffiyeh; in the past, it has also been wrapped around the rim of a fez.
The keffiyeh is almost always of white cotton cloth, but many have a checkered pattern in red or black stitched into them. The plain white keffiyeh is most popular in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf —in Kuwait and Bahrain to the exclusion of almost any other style.
The keffiyeh is worn by men of all ages, whether on the head or around the shoulders. In Jordanthe red-and-white keffiyeh is strongly associated with the country and its heritage, because the red color was introduced into the Keffiyeh by the Jordanian Bedouins under British rulewhere it is known as the shemagh mhadab.
The Jordanian keffiyeh has decorative cotton or wool tassels on the sides; the bigger these tassels, the greater the garment's supposed value and the status of the person wearing it. The tasseled red-and-white Jordanian shemagh is much thicker than the untasseled red-and-white shemagh seen in Persian Gulf countries. In Egyptthe keffiyeh and the agal is worn by Bedouins specially in the Sinai Peninsula. It is also sometimes tied into a turban in varying styles. In Yemen, the keffiyeh is used extensively in both red-white and black-white pattern.
It spread during through Palestinian refugees. In Malaysiathe keffiyeh has been worn by Muslim women as part of hijab fashion and during the Palestinian struggle against Israel. Many Malaysians wore it to show solidarity for Palestine. Also in Indonesia the people used the keffiyeh to show their solidarity with the Palestinians.
In Turkey it was forbidden to wear a keffiyeh because it was seen as evidence of support of the PKK. The keffiyeh, especially the all-white keffiyeh, is also known as the ghutrah. This is particularly common in the Arabian Peninsulawhere the optional skullcap is called a keffiyeh. The scarf gained popularity during the Iran-Iraq war as a sign of Shi'a resistance against Saddam. The Chafiyeh is also worn by Basij members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, Hezbollah, as well as occasionally by members of Iraq's Popular Mobilization Forces, but also by ordinary Shia religious pilgrims not affiliated with any political group.
A piece of white cloth made of cotton mild, worn in western Iraq and by the Arabs of the Arabian Gulf states.
Traditionally worn by Palestinian farmers, the keffiyeh became worn by Palestinian men of any rank and became a symbol of Palestinian nationalism during the Arab Revolt of the s.
The black-and-white fishnet pattern keffiyeh would later become Arafat's iconic symbol, and he would rarely be seen without it; only occasionally would he wear a military cap, or, in colder climates, a Russian -style ushanka hat. Arafat would wear his keffiyeh in a semi-traditional way, wrapped around his head via an agal. He also wore a similarly patterned piece of cloth in the neckline of his military fatigues.Traditional Colombian clothing includes the la pollera colora, ruana and sombrero vueltiao.
The ruana is a cape-like piece of clothing traditionally worn in the Andean region of Colombian. It is made of dyed or undyed wool and worn wrapped around the shoulders as protection against the cooler weather of the mountains. One of the most famous pieces of traditional clothing in Colombia is the la pollera colora, which is worn by women. This piece of clothing is a brightly colored skirt, which is worn with a matching blouse with sleeves that sit low on the arms and leave the shoulders uncovered.
Both the blouse and skirt are adorned with ruffles and lace. The material of the skirt comes in a multitude of designs and colors, ranging from floral prints to strips of various colors. Men wear similar outfits, except they wear capes, headdresses and trousers containing ruffles at the ankles. Natives usually don this clothing during national festivals and parades. Another part of traditional Colombian clothing is the sombrero vueltiao, or turned hat.
It is worn widely by men, although females occasionally wear it as well. This sombrero is crafted from fibers from palm trees and often have scenes and symbols sewn into them. Home World View.This is a richly decorated dress with needlework in many designs, styles and colors. The woman wearing the pollera is further ornamented with gold and pearl jewelry. Naturally this is not every day wear but one used for special occasions.
However, as in other parts of Latin America, in Panama it evolved into what it is today. A study as to where in Spain it originated has failed to reveal any particular location in the old country.
The important fact is that its uniqueness developed in Panama and compares to no other national dress in the Americas. How did the pollera come to be the dress it is today? The provinces of Los Santos and Herrera jealously guard the pollera tradition, but this has not prevented the model to be adopted by all regions of the Republic.
One can appreciate the pride of a woman dressed in a pollera made in one of the two provinces and her knowledge that the outfit follows all aspects of tradition and workmanship. While no one can say for sure when the Pollera became the traditional dress of Panama, there is evidence that as early as the term was already being used.
Over the short sleeved blouse are three ruffles similar in appearance but so low that the upper chest and back are left practically nude. Three variations are customarily seen: one using a typical hat; one using combs; and one using tembleques, combs and other jewelry.
In all three cases, the hair is parted down the middle, combed to each side and braided. The head adornments vary according to the wealth of the person and include fancy combs with gold and pearls and gold tembleques along with gold bracelets, earrings and necklaces. Left: Pollera, Modeled by my cousin Bilin.